Critical reviews of books, exhibitions, and projects in all areas and periods of art history and visual studies

North America
Dissertations in Progress by Subject, 2015

Abrams, Matthew, “Alternate Modernity: From Aby Warburg to Agnes Martin” (Yale, D. Joselit)

Alvarez, Andrea, “The Art and Pedagogy of Josef Albers” (Virginia Commonwealth, R. Hobbs)

Andrus, Timothy, “Stuart Davis’s Art Theory, 1920–1928” (Virginia Commonwealth, R. Hobbs)

Applebaum, Lauren, “Elusive Matter, Material Bodies: American Art in the Age of Electronic Mediation, 1865–1918” (UIUC, J. Greenhill)

Autry, La Tanya, “The Crossroads of Commemoration: Lynching Landscapes in America” (Delaware, C. Holloway)

Bass, Nicole, “‘The Shade of Private Life’: The Right to Privacy and the Press in Turn-of-the-Century American Art” (Yale, E. Cooke, Jr.)

Beach, Caitlin, “Commerce Configured: Sculpture, Slavery, and Commodity in the Nineteenth-Century Atlantic World” (Columbia, E. Hutchinson)

Begin, Jacob, “Gone But Not Forgotten: The Temporality and Technique of Portraiture on Gravestones in Rhode Island” (Boston, K. Morgan)

Berman, Jody, “Race, Humor, and Subversion in the Work of Four Artists” (Florida, R. Poynor ; P. Ortiz)

Bernstein, Noga, “Global Age Design: Ruth Reeves’s Cross-Cultural Practice” (Stony Brook University, M. Bogart)

Bianco, Christine, “Modern Art for Middle America: American Abstraction in Mass Magazines, 1946–1960” (Oxford Brookes, E. Darling)

Bilbo, Rebecca Wright, “Academic or Industrial: Educating the Artist in Nineteenth-Century Cincinnati” (Indiana, S. Burns)

Bobier, Kimberly “Representing and Refracting the Civil Rights Movement in Late Twentieth-Century Art” (UNC Chapel Hill, J. Bowles)

Boone, Emilie, “Visions of Harlem: Reconsidering the Studio Photography of James Van Der Zee” (Northwestern, K. Thompson)

Boone, Jobyl, “Christo and Jean-Claude in the United States, 1964–2005” (Delaware, A. Gibson)

Boyd, Alison, “Ensemble Modernism: Orchestrating Art and People at the Barnes Foundation” (Northwestern, C. Kiaer)

Brown, Leslie, “Pay Per View: Touristic Viewing Devices, Photographic Behaviors, and Picturing Landscape in American Art” (Boston, K. Sichel)

Brunstrom, Mary Reid, “Faith’s Midwest Modern Forms: Midcentury Catholic Churches by Murphy and Mackey, Architects” (Washington University, A. Miller)

Butler, Eliza, “The Public Art of Francis Davis Millet” (Columbia, E. Hutchinson)

Camp, Jennifer, “Stories in Pictures: The Woodcut Novels of Lynd Ward and Visual Narrative in Depression-Era America” (Virginia, C. Higginbotham)

Campbell, Andrianna, “Norman Lewis: Linearity, Pedagogy, and Activism in his Abstract Expressionism, 1946–1964” (CUNY, D. Joselit)

Caplan, Allison, “Their Flickering Creations: Value, Surface, and Animacy in Nahua Precious Art” (Tulane, E. Boone)

Casey, Emily, “Waterscapes: Representing the Sea in the American Imagination, 1760–1815” (Delaware, W. Bellion)

Chamberlain, Colby, “George Maciunas and the Art of Paperwork” (Columbia, B. Joseph)

Choi, Connie, “A Matter of Building Bridges: Photography and African American Education across the Century” (Columbia, K. Jones)

Coe, Erin, “Cultural Icon Meets Cultural Landscape: Georgia O’Keeffe, Historiography, and Lake George” (Boston, P. Hills)

Conley, Niki D., “Lt. Claggett Wilson, Queer Masculinity, and American Modernism” (Missouri, Columbia, K. Schwain)

Cooley, Jessica A., “Crip Materiality: The Conservation of Art in the United States, Disability, and the Art of Failure” (Wisconsin, Madison, J. Casid)

Corcoran, Eloise, “Chalk-Talking: Blackboards, Slates, and the Technology of Erasure in 19th-Century American Visual Culture” (Yale, E. Cooke, Jr.)

Cordero, Karen, “The Invention of Popular Art: A Paradigm for the Construction of Mexican Visual Culture, 1915–1940” (Yale, M. Miller)

Corrales-Diaz, Erin R., “Remembering the Veteran: Disability, Trauma, and the American Civil War, 1861–1915” (UNC Chapel Hill, R. Barrett)

Crawford, Katelyn D., “Transient Painters, Traveling Canvases: Portraiture and Mobility in the British Atlantic, 1750–1780” (Virginia, M. McInnis)

Dawood, Azra, “John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and the Architecture of Protestant Internationalism (1919–1946)” (MIT, N. Rabbat)

DeGregorio, William, “Objectifying Dress: Collecting Historic Costume in the United States, 1920–1970” (Bard Graduate Center, C. Whalen)

Dibble, Rebecca, “Making the War: Materiality and Memory in the American Civil War” (Yale, E. Cooke, Jr.)

DiBenedetto, Erica, “Drawing from Architecture: The Conceptual Methods of Sol LeWitt’s Art, 1965–1980” (Princeton, B. Doherty; H. Foster)

Dosch, Mya, “Creating 1968: Art, Architecture, and the Memory of the Mexican Student Movement” (CUNY, A. Indych-López)

Eisenbarth, Erin, “Imagining the Founding Fathers: Luther and DeLancey Kountze’s Collection of Washingtoniana” (Bard Graduate Center, C. Whalen)

Ericson, Klint, “Sumptuous and Beautiful, As They Were: Architectural Form, Everyday Life, and Cultural Encounter in a Seventeenth-Century New Mexico Mission” (UNC Chapel Hill, E. Douglas)

Esquivel, Savannah, “Ornament and Antiquity in the Murals of Sixteenth-Century Mexico” (Chicago, C. Fromont)

Fadeley, Beth, “The Empire at Home: Painting the Domestic Interior in the Age of US Global Expansion, 1876–1915” (Georgia, J. Simon)

Favorite, Jennifer, “Museum Additions at US War Memorials and the Reinterpretation of National History” (CUNY, H. Senie)

Flores, Jez, “Camp as a Weapon: Chicano Identity and Asco’s Aesthetics of Resistance” (UC Berkeley, J. Bryan-Wilson)

Franco, Joshua, “Marfa, Marfa: Minimalism, rasquachismo, and Questioning ‘Decolonial Aesthetics’ in Far West Texas” (Binghamton University, T. McDonough)

Fravel, Laura, “Gazing Westward: The Quest for Unity in American Art Displays at the World’s Fairs, 1876–1916” (UNC Chapel Hill, R. Barrett)

Freese, Lauren, “Taste in the City: Depictions of Food Consumption in Urban America, 1880–1920” (Iowa, J. Kinsey)

Gassaway, William, “Extraordinary Bodies: The Art of Deformation in Postclassic Mexico” (Columbia, E. Pasztory)

Gavino, Julianne, “Visualizing Topographies of Race and Public Space: Asian American Artists in California, 1970 to Present” (UC Santa Barbara, E. B. Robertson)

Gontar, Cybèle, “José Francisco Xavier de Salazar y Mendoza and Jacques Guillaume Lucien Amans: Portraiture, Identity, and Plantation Society in New Orleans, 1790–1890” (CUNY, K. Manthorne)

Green, Kate, “Encountering Vito Acconci: Performing Conceptual Art in New York, ca. 1970” (Texas, Austin, A. Reynolds)

Greenberg, Alyssa, “Arts Awareness at the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Art Museum Education as Artistic and Political Practice” (UIC, T. Quinn)

Hannah, Caroline, “Henry Varnum Poor, Crow House, Craft, and Design” (Bard Graduate Center, P. Kirkham)

Harvey, Melanee, “Upon this Rock: Mapping Architecture and Material Histories of the Protestant Black Church, 1881–1969” (Boston, K. Morgan)

Hawley, Elizabeth, “Imaging the Indian/Imagining the Indian: Modern Art and Native Tradition in Santa Fe, 1909–1931” (CUNY, K. Manthorne)

Hazard, Alice Maggie, “Building a Market for Death: Civil War Photographs and the Rise of Death and Mourning as a Public Experience in the Nineteenth-Century North” (UIC, H. Higgins)

Heung, Elsie, “Portraying Women’s Suffrage: Visual Arts and the Campaign for the Vote in the United States, 1900–1920” (CUNY, G. Levin)

Horne, Sarah Marie, “Mass Appeal: The Fame and Fortune of American Artist Helen Dryden, 1887–1972” (Missouri, Columbia, K. Schwain)

Huang, Karen, “Artists’ Reenactments: The Vietnam War, the War on Terror, and the Performance of American Activism” (USC, K. Flint)

Israel, Mei-Ling, “Circles, Bees, and Threads: Traditional Craft Communities and the Digital” (Bard Graduate Center, C. Whalen)

Jensen, Hadley, “Shaped by the Camera: Navajo Weavers and the Photography of Making in the American Southwest, 1880–1945” (Bard Graduate Center, A. Glass)

Jordan, Cara, “Joseph Beuys and Social Sculpture in the United States” (CUNY, H. Senie)

Kerrigan, Emily A., “Art off the Beaten Path: Developing American Modernism in New England’s Small Towns, Seaports, and Villages” (Iowa, J. Kinsey)

Ketcham, Christopher M., “Minimal Art and Body Politics in New York City, 1961–1975” (MIT, C. Jones)

Kim, Miri, “Right Matter in the Right Place: The Paintings of Albert Pinkham Ryder” (Princeton, R. DeLue)

King, Isaac, “The One and the Many: Authority in American National Portraiture in the Post-Revolutionary Era” (Pittsburgh, K. Savage)

Kirschner-Perlstein, Melanie, “Arthur G. Dove: Illustrations and Abstractions: 1903–1933” (Virginia, E. Turner)

Korobkin, Rachel, “Art and Violence in the 1930s” (Yale, E. Cooke)

Kubo, Michael, “Architecture Incorporated: Anonymity in Postwar Modernism” (MIT, M. Jarzombek)

Landres, Sophie, “Body, Law, Instrument: Charlotte Moorman’s Early Performances with Nam June Paik” (Stony Brook University, A. Uroskie)

Lazevnick, Ashley, “Precisionism in the Long 1920s” (Princeton, R. DeLue)

Lee, KeyJo, “Melancholic Materiality: History and the Unhealable Wound in African American Photographic Portraits, 1850–1877” (Yale, K. Mercer)

Lehman, Bree, “Ancestors and Heirlooms: The Reception, Collection, and Display of Early American Portraiture, 1876–1941” (CUNY, K. Manthorne)

Levenson, Abra, “Figures and Things: Charles Demuth, 1914–1935” (Princeton, R. DeLue)

Lopes, Shana, “‘The Intimate Connection’: American and Germany Photography, Interactions from 1840 to 1890” (Rutgers, T. Sheehan)

Lopez, Albert, “The Integrated State: Architecture, Planning, and Politics in Mexico, 1942–1958” (MIT, A. Dutta)

LoScerbo, Gianna, “A Struggle for the Real: Documentary Photography and Film in Post-WWII American Culture” (Rutgers, A. Zervigon)

Lundy, Heather, “Architecture and Placemaking at a Northern Maya City: Ek’ Balam and the Question of Style” (Florida State, M. Carrasco)

Macfarlane, Ellen, “Seeing Plus: Group f.64 Photography and the Political” (Princeton, A. McCauley)

Mandravelis, Stephen, “Sowing Rural Vision: The American Agriculturist and the Visual Rhetorics of Everyday Life, 1840–1880” (UNC Chapel Hill, B. Herman)

Marks, Maxine, “Touching Nether-Regionalisms: Paul Cadmus as Exemplary Foil to a Homegrown American Art” (New Mexico, K. P. Buick)

Matsumura, Kimiko, “Science/Fiction: Early Twentieth-Century Display in the American Museum of Natural History and Its Postwar Responses” (Rutgers, S. Sidlauskas)

Mays, Eowyn, “Tracing the Imperial Imaginary in American and Philippine Visual Culture from 1898 to 1918” (Maryland, College Park, R. Ater)

McCann, Justin, “Elastic Capacities: Whistler and the Art of Transformation” (Rutgers, S. Sidlauskas)

McClellan, Meghan, “Snapshot Satire: Visual Conversations among Women Photographers, 1860–1910” (Missouri, Columbia, K. Schwain)

McCormick, Heather Jane, “Woodcarvers in the City of New York: A Study in Craft Change, 1820–1880” (Bard Graduate Center, P. Kirkham)

McCutcheon, Erin, “Strategic Dispositions: Women, Art, and Tradition in Mexico City, 1975–1990” (Tulane, T. Reese)

McGinnis Flanagan, Julie, “Remapping the Spaces for American Art: John Singer Sargent, Modernism and the Grand Central Art Galleries, 1922–1939” (Temple, G. Silk; T. Cooper)

McGraw, Eva, “Xanthus Russell Smith and Maritime Imagery in America” (CUNY, K. Manthorne)

Meyer, Don, “Firgues of Refinement: Art and Steel in Pittsburgh’s Gilded Age” (Yale, A. Nemerov)

Michelon, Christina, “Interior Impressions: Printed Material in the Nineteenth-Century American Home” (Minnesota, J. Marshall)

Miller, Katherine, “The Office of the Supervising Architect: Transforming American Architectural Practice, 1852–1862” (Virginia, R. Wilson)

Miller, Mark Parker, “Claiming and Denying Sophistication: Grant Wood’s Art and Responses to it, 1930-1942” (Delaware, A. Gibson)

Miller, Nicholas, “Primitivist Encounters? African American Paintings, Diasporic Objects, and the Making of Modern Art, 1927–1977” (Northwestern, H. Copeland)

Miller, Sequoia, “Come Together: Conceptual and Studio Craft in the 1960s and 1970s” (Yale, E. Cooke, Jr.)

Mintie, Katherine, “Rights and Reproductions?: Commercial Photography and Copyright Law in the United States, 1884–1909” (UC Berkeley, M. Lovell)

Mitchem, Hollis, “Triptychs for Victory: Altar Paintings for the American Armed Forces in World War II” (Graduate Theological Union, M. Morris)

Munson, Meredith Massar, “Babylon, New Jerusalem, and the Brooklyn Bridge: Modern Vastations in American Art” (Graduate Theological Union, D. Zuber)

Murphy, Elizabeth, “A Forward Looking Art: Education, Creative Exchange, and the Rise of Modern Native American Art” (USC, K. Flint)

Murphy, John Paul, “Back to the Garden: Woodstock’s Visual Counterculture, 1902–1969” (Northwestern, S. Eisenman)

Oliver, Christopher, “Civic Visions: The Panorama and Popular Amusement in American Art and Society, 1845–1870” (Virginia, M. McInnis)

Ortega, Emmanuel, “Violence and Virtue in the Provinces of New Spain: Images of Novohispanic Franciscan Martyrs in 18th Century New Mexico” (New Mexico, R. Hernandez-Dúran)

Padgett, Jennifer, “Made for ‘Modern Surroundings’: Intersections of Fine Art, Decorative Arts, and Design in America, 1920–1940” (Washington University, A. Miller)

Palmor, Lauren, “Shadows and Light: Seeing Senescence in American and British Genre Painting, ca. 1850–1910” (Washington, S. Casteras)

Parrish, Sarah, “Embellishing Modernism: Abstraction and Decoration in 1970s American Art” (Boston, G. Williams)

Parsons, Heather, “The Tableaux of Edward and Nancy Reddin Kienholz and the Spectacle of Photography” (Penn State, S. Rich)

Parsons, Jennifer Stettler, “John Sloan: Between Philadelphia and New York, 1892–1907” (Virginia, E. Turner)

Perry, Rebecca, “Problematic Bodies: Dressing Pre-Adolescent Girls in the United States, 1930–1965” (Bard Graduate Center, A. Ogata)

Peterson, Kristi, “Consumption and Construction: Devotional Images and the Place of Empire in Postclassic Mexico, 1325–1521” (Florida State, M. Carrasco)

Piper, Corey, “Animal Pursuits: Hunting and the Visual Arts in Nineteenth-Century America” (Virginia, M. McInnis)

Pires, Leah, “Finesse: Louise Lawler in Collaboration, 1978–1993” (Columbia, A. Alberro; R. Deutsche)

Pistell, Gillian, “Ray Johnson: Artist as Archivist” (CUNY, M. Hadler)

Raffel, Amy, “Merchandise, Mass Media, and Accessibility: Keith Haring’s Pop Shop” (CUNY, S. Wilson)

Raimond, Ellen, “The Artist as Immigrant: Performative Photographic Projects by Tseng Kwong Chi, Nikki S. Lee, and Annu Palakunnathu Matthew” (Kansas, J. Pultz)

Ramsey, Rosemary, “Biases and Bridges: Reception of the Italian Avant-garde in the United States, 1949–1957” (CUNY, E. Braun)

Reed, Alycia F., “Ready to Blow Your Mind: Andy Warhol’s Exploding Plastic Inevitable” (Iowa, C. Adcock)

Reed, Emily, “Alexander Calder, Collaborative Abstraction, and Public Art” (Virginia, E. Turner)

Riley, Caroline, “‘Ambassador of Good Will’: The Museum of Modern Art’s Three Centuries of American Art in 1930s Europe and the United States” (Boston, P. Hills)

Rivera, Katja, “Crossing the Divide: Felipe Ehrenberg’s Performances, Magazines, and Books” (UIC, H. Higgins)

Robbins, Karen, “Discipline and Polish: Teaching Domesticity at the Connecticut Industrial School for Girls, 1868–1917” (Boston, K. Morgan)

Roland, S. Zelda, “Hollywood Stockyards: People and Places in the Background of Classical Hollywood” (Yale, J. D. Connor)

Ronan, Kristine, “Buffalo Dancer: The Biography of an Image” (Michigan, D. Doris)

Rooney, Sierra, “Monuments to Women: Visualizing Female Heroes in American Public Life since 1980 (Stony Brook University, M. Bogart)

Rose, Diana, “Living Time, Performing Memory: Maya Ceremonies of Foundation and Renewal” (UC Santa Cruz, C. Dean)

Rye-Kopec, Ashley, “No One a Stranger: Anglo-American Representations of Venetian Labor, ca. 1866–1900” (Delaware, W. Bellion)

Sackeroff, Samuel, “The Liberal Image” (Yale, S. Zeidler)

Salseda, Rose, “The Aftermath of the Los Angeles Riots: Trauma and Historical Revisionism in Art, 1992–2012” (Texas, Austin, C. Smith)

Sandler Perten, Rebecca, “Implications of Mass Production for the Consumption of Jewish Ritual Objects by American Jewry, 1880–1980” (Bard Graduate Center, D. Jaffee)

Saracino, Jennifer, “Shifting Landscape: Depictions of Environmental Disruption in the Mappa Uppsala of Mexico-Tenochtitlan” (Tulane, E. Boone)

Sauzade, Alena, “Witnesses to Terror: Nationhood and Trauma in Memorials to Victims of Terrorism” (Stony Brook University, M. Bogart)

Schade, Jill Baskin, “Picturing Freedom’s Shores: The Visual Culture of Liberian Colonization, 1821–1861” (Virginia, L. Nelson)

Schaeffer, D. Bryan, “The Interplay of Movement and Place: Visual Narratives of Travel in the Mixtec Codices” (Florida State, M. Carrasco)

Schiller, Emily, “Unsettled Masses: Transportation in American Art during the 1930s and 1940s” (Penn State, N. Locke)

Schwartz, George, “‘Collecting and Arranging…a History of the Globe’: A Reconsideration of the Salem East India Marine Society and Antebellum American Museology” (Boston, K. Morgan)

Schwartz, Rebecca Ayres, “Thomas Cole on Architecture: Picturing the Gothic” (Delaware, B. Herman)

Secco, Maria Noël, “Luis Camnitzer: Le concept de l’artiste latino américain” (Université de Montréal, T. Porterfield)

Seymour, Brian, “Art Collecting and Shaping Publics at the Turn of the Twentieth Century: A Philadelphia Story” (Temple, G. Silk)

Shannon, Heather A., “Just an Amateur: Adam Clark Vroman, Photography, and the American West, 1895–1904” (Rutgers, T. Sheehan)

Situ, Xiao, “Emily Dickinson’s Window Culture, 1830–1886” (Yale, A. Nemerov; E. Cooke, Jr.)

Smith, Laura Lake, “Imaging the In-between: The Serial Art of Richard Tuttle” (Georgia, I. Wallace)

Spear, Elizabeth, “Reframing Landscape: Spectacular Display and the Collaborative Viewing Experience in Nineteenth-Century American Landscape Painting” (Iowa, J. Kinsey)

Sperling, Juliet, “Animating Flatness: Seeing Moving Images in American Painting and Mass Visual Culture, 1800–1895” (Pennsylvania, M. Leja)

Stein, Deborah, “Charles Callahan Perkins, Classical Sculpture, and the Rhetorical Tradition in Boston” (Boston, K. Morgan)

Strauss, Stephanie, “Rethinking Epi-Olmec: The Art and Epigraphy of the Late Preclassic Isthmus of Tehuantepec” (Texas, Austin, J. Guernsey)

Teti, Matthew, “Terrorism in American Art, Media, and Popular Culture of the 1970s” (Columbia, B. Joseph)

Thomas, Mary, “Enacted Sites: Art and the Visualization of Spatial Justice in Los Angeles, 1966–2014” (UC Santa Cruz, J. González)

Thomas, Tashima, “An Imperial Diet: From Cacao to Coconuts–Representing Edible Bodies in the Americas from the Eighteenth Century to the Present” (Rutgers, T. Flores)

Thompson, Whitney, “Foreign-born Artists Making ‘American’ Pictures: The Immigrant Experience and the Art of the United States, 1819–1893” (CUNY, K. Manthorne)

Torbert, Amy, “Going Places: The Material and Imagined Geographies of Prints in the Atlantic World, 1770–1840” (Delaware, W. Bellion)

Tredway, Thomas, “Dinner at Tiffany’s: Van Day Truex and Post-War American Design” (Bard Graduate Center, P. Kirkham)

Truitt, Andrea, “Experiencing the Otherworldly: Magazine Reading and Illustrations of Orientalist Domestic Space in the United States, 1880–1920” (Minnesota, J. Marshall; K. Solomonson)

Tuite, Diana, “Methods for Modernism: Arthur Wesley Dow Intersects the Stieglitz Circle” (Princeton, J. Wilmerding)

Tuite, Rebecca, “Nightwear in Hollywood Film and Television and the United States Nightwear Industry, 1945–1977” (Bard Graduate Center, C. Whalen)

Varet, Esther Kim, “Art INC: A Re-Assessment of the Art and Technology Program at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art” (Columbia, A. Alberro)

Vasiliou, Tia, “American Art of the Charles Lang Freer Collection: Trans-Pacific Harmony and American Imperialism in the Pacific Era” (Washington University, A. Miller)

Walkiewicz, Alice, “From the ‘Song of the Shirt’ to the Call to Organize: The Seamstress in Late-19th-Century Art in Europe and the United States” (CUNY, J. Sund)

Walsh, Catherine, “‘Tell Me a Story’: Narrative and Orality in Nineteenth-Century American Visual Culture” (Delaware, W. Bellion)

Walsh, Taylor, “Medium at the Margins: Bruce Nauman, 1965–1975” (Harvard, C. Lambert-Beatty; B. Buchloh)

Warner, Emily, “Painting the Abstract Environment: Abstract Murals in New York, 1935–1960” (Pennsylvania, M. Leja)

Weaver, Alison, “The Beuys Effect: Joseph Beuys’ Reception in the United States” (CUNY, S. Wilson)

Weintraub, Sara, “From Design to Completion: The Transformation of US War Memorials on the National Mall” (CUNY, H. Senie)

Welch, Adam. “‘Borderline Research’: Art between Canada and the United States, 1965–1980” (Toronto, E. Legge)

White, Rachel, “Graphic Form: Vogue and the Politics of the Body, 1930–1950” (UIUC, T. Weissman)

Wilson, Alona, “Hughie Lee-Smith, African American Artist: Narrative Paintings, Jim Crow, and the Cold War” (Boston, P. Hills)

Wurzelbacher, Karli, “Picture Panes: American Modernism and Reverse Painting on Glass” (Delaware, W. Bellion; J. Hill)

Ziolkowski, Aaron, “Lobby Art during the Cold War” (Penn State, S. Rich)

Zundo, Mary Elizabeth, “Mapping Destiny: Cartography and Nineteenth-Century American Art of the Frontier” (UIUC, D. O’Brien)